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‘金沙最新官方网站’喜马拉雅伟哥日渐稀缺 气候变化惹的祸

时间:2023-10-25 15:17:01 来源:金沙最新官方网站 点击:

本文摘要:BAGDANDA, Nepal — From a pasture high in the Himalayas, Tulsingh Rokaya, 55, a shepherd, watched for years as the number of itinerant harvesters swelled.尼泊尔巴格丹达——来自喜马拉雅山脉一个高原牧场的55岁牧民图尔辛格·罗卡亚(Tulsingh Rokaya),多年来看著地看著流动采收者的人数在大大发展壮大。


BAGDANDA, Nepal — From a pasture high in the Himalayas, Tulsingh Rokaya, 55, a shepherd, watched for years as the number of itinerant harvesters swelled.尼泊尔巴格丹达——来自喜马拉雅山脉一个高原牧场的55岁牧民图尔辛格·罗卡亚(Tulsingh Rokaya),多年来看著地看著流动采收者的人数在大大发展壮大。They came in search of what is known as caterpillar fungus, or yarsagumba in Nepali. A parasitic fungus, it forms out of the head of ghost moth larvae living in the soil at altitudes above 10,000 feet, and has been used as an aphrodisiac for at least a thousand years, earning it the nickname Himalayan Viagra.他们是来找寻所谓的“虫草”的,尼泊尔语叫yarsagumba。这是一种宿主真菌,由蝠蛾幼虫的头部构成,这种幼虫生活在海拔3000多米的高原土壤中。

虫草被用于壮阳药最少有1000年了,它享有“喜马拉雅伟哥”的别称。In the 1980s, the pickers used to trade the fungus for cigarettes and noodles. But as yarsagumba grew in popularity, it exploded into a multibillion-dollar industry spanning China, Singapore and the United States.在20世纪80年代,采收者用这种真菌换香烟和面条。但随着虫草更加多地受到人们的青睐,它很快发展沦为一个跨越中国、新加坡和美国的数十亿美元的产业。

During the picking season, which runs from late May to July, the number of harvesters in Bagdanda and two neighboring camps has often reached several thousands of people. But this season, with the fungus becoming scarce, the number is down to the hundreds.在5月下旬至7月的采收季节,前来巴格丹达和附近两个营地的采集者人数往往可超过几千人。但随着这种真菌显得更加较少,今年收集季节的人数已上升到了几百。They still hike from a camp below, carrying metal picks to dig out the fungus, helping to produce an average regional harvest of 135 tons a year. Occasionally, they stop at Mr. Rokaya’s tent to buy sheep’s curd. Most of the time they pass through, teetering on a steep hillside where they spend the morning hunched over to find the fungus’s crooked black stem poking through the dirt.他们仍从山下的营地步行上山,手拿金属小镐把虫草挖出,为这个山区平均值每年135吨的产量做到贡献。

有时候,他们不会在罗卡亚的帐篷前逗留,出售羊凝乳。但大多数时候,他们只是从这个搭起在平缓山坡上的帐篷前路经,整个上午都在弯着腰找寻这种真菌遮住泥土的倾斜黑茎。Folklore has it that interest in the fungus stems from the startling performance of Chinese runners at an international track meet in 1993, which their coach attributed to their consumption of a soup combining the fungus with turtle blood. (Western competitors suspected something less exotic, namely performance-enhancing drugs.)民间传说称之为,对这种真菌的兴趣,来自中国赛跑选手在1993年的一次国际田径运动会上令人吃惊的展现出。他们的教练把成绩归因于于运动员喝了用虫草和鳖血做到的汤。

(西方的竞争对手猜测并不是出于这么具备异国风味的原因,而是由于用于了提升成绩的兴奋剂。)With prices topping $50,000 a pound in China’s coastal megacities, harvesting of the fungus has helped to curb endemic poverty in the Himalayas, which stretch across Nepal, northern India, Bhutan, Tibet and China. For hundreds of thousands of people living in remote villages, selling yarsagumba has become a primary source of income.在中国的沿海大城市,虫草标价多达了每磅5万美元(约合每千克66万元人民币)。采收虫草协助提高了喜马拉雅地区普遍存在的贫困状况。


A study by Nepal’s central bank found that harvesters earned an average of about $2,500, or 56 percent of their yearly income, selling the fungus. Money from yarsagumba has given some of the world’s most impoverished people access to electricity, hospital care and education.尼泊尔中央银行的一项研究找到,采收者贩卖虫草的平均收入大约为2500美元(约合1.7万元人民币),占到他们年收入的56%。由虫草取得的收益让世界上最贫困的一些人用上了电,看得起病,也以求拒绝接受教育。“The whole Tibetan plateau is by now completely dependent on the cash influx,” said Daniel Winkler, a mycologist who has studied the caterpillar fungus extensively in Tibet. He estimated that over one million people in Tibet sell the fungus.“到现在,整个青藏高原地区几乎倚赖这部分资金来源,”真菌学家丹尼尔·温克勒(Daniel Winkler)说道。



But as quickly as demand for the fungus has surged, its supply has dropped sharply. Mycologists studying the fungus point to overharvesting as one reason. But another possible cause, some researchers now believe, is a warmer ecosystem precipitated by climate change, a phenomenon that may be more acute at higher altitudes.虫草的市场需求很快下跌的同时,供应量却经常出现轻微的下降。研究虫草的真菌学家指出过度采收是经常出现这种状况的一个原因。


“There are strong theoretical reasons as to why we might expect the rate of climate change to be faster higher up in the mountains than it is at sea level,” said Nicholas Pepin, a geographer at the University of Portsmouth in England.“我们有充份的理论依据指出,气候变化的速率在山区会比在海平面更加慢,”英格兰朴茨茅斯大学(University of Portsmouth)的地理学家尼古拉斯·佩平(Nicholas Pepin)说道。Some of the most compelling data comes from the Tibetan plateau, where from 2001 to 2012, the increase in temperatures was between half a degree Fahrenheit and nearly an entire degree at weather stations above 10,000 feet. In the same decade, global temperatures rose by only about 0.2 degrees.一些最不具说服力的数据来自青藏高原。自2001年至2012年,那里的气温快速增长了0.5华氏度(约合0.3摄氏度),在海拔多达1万英尺(约合3000米)的气象站,增幅则超过将近1华氏度。

而在某种程度的十年里,全球平均气温只快速增长了0.2华氏度左右。Scientists say it is unclear why mountain ranges may be warming more rapidly than other parts of the planet. But Kamaljit Bawa, a biologist at the University of Massachusetts Boston, said failure to better understand warming in the Himalayas could have serious consequences for the region’s unique biodiversity.科学家回应,目前还不确切为什么山脉地区气温增长速度不会比地球上的其他地区更加慢。不过,马萨诸塞州大学波士顿分校(University of Massachusetts at Boston)的生物学家卡迈勒吉特·巴瓦(Kamaljit Bawa)回应,倘若无法更佳地解读喜马拉雅的气候气候变化,可能会给该地区独一无二的生物多样性带给相当严重的后果。“We have to make very rapid progress,” he said. “We can’t use the slow approach, the traditional, slow scientific approach.”“我们得十分较慢地获得进展,”他说道。

“我们无法使用快的方式,那种传统的、比较慢的科学方法。”Not for yarsagumba, apparently.似乎,用这种方式应付虫草问题是权宜之计的。As harvesters returned from the pastures to Bagdanda on a recent afternoon, children gathered in the camp’s dusty thoroughfare and divided teams for a volleyball game. A mother held down her squirming daughter to pick lice from her scalp. Men congregated on trash-strewn dirt mounds and peeled strips of kutki, an herb used to treat vomiting and fever.不久前的一个下午,采收者从牧场回到巴格丹达,孩子们挤满在营地尘土飞扬的大路上,分组玩游戏排球游戏。


In a village below the meadows, Prithvi Budha, 60, a beekeeper who is sitting out the harvest to watch dozens of empty mud and stone huts, said less precipitation may be the cause for the drop in yarsagumba supplies.在坐落于草原下方的一座村子,现年60岁的养蜂人普里特维·布达(Prithvi Budha)没参与采收,而是负责管理看管那几十座没有人的泥石棚屋。他说道降水增加有可能是虫草产量减少的原因。“We used to have snow up to here and up to here,” he said, pointing to his torso and his shoulders as he recalled a string of childhood winters.“过去这里不会下相当大的雪,积雪能有这么低,这么低,”他说道一旁说道,一旁夹住比到自己的躯干和肩膀部位。

他在回想童年时期的冬天。Uttam Shrestha, a researcher at the University of Southern Queensland in Australia, said it was difficult to say why the supply of yarsagumba had dropped. Changes in temperature, he said, could be one of several factors affecting the supply of the fungus.澳大利亚南昆士兰大学(University of Southern Queensland)的研究人员乌塔姆·什雷斯塔(Uttam Shrestha)回应,很难确认为什么虫草的产量不会增加。

他说道气温变化有可能是影响虫草供应的多种因素之一。“We can draw some inferences,” he said. “Here, the fungus is very sensitive to the increase in temperature and so that could have an impact, but there is no empirical evidence yet.”“我们可以做到一些假设,”他说道。“在这里,虫草对气温的下降是十分脆弱的,所以它可能会有影响,但目前还没实践经验的证据。

”Jir Bahadur Budha, 43, a farmer, said he was disappointed with this year’s harvest. He estimated that his family of six would collect only 400 pieces of yarsagumba, 200 fewer than last year and 500 fewer than the year before. The selling price for a single piece is about $3.50 in Nepal.现年43岁的农民哥吉尔·巴哈杜尔·布达(Jir Bahadur Budha)回应,他对今年的农作物深感沮丧。他估算今年家里六个人不能采到400株虫草,比去年较少200株,比前聪慧500株。

目前虫草在尼泊尔的单株售价大约为3.5美元。On a recent morning, Mr. Budha joined dozens of others in a pasture as a heavy fog set in. Within 10 minutes of searching, calls echoed from a few hundred feet away, where a teenager had spotted one of the day’s first pieces. Clawing away dirt from the larva’s body, the boy received a smattering of congratulations. He had found a good piece.不久前的一个上午,布达和另外几十个人在浓雾笼罩之时走出了牧场。开始搜索将近十分钟,几百英尺近的地方传到喊声,一名少年寻找了当天第一株虫草。

扒开幼虫尸体上的泥土,他寻找了一株品质不俗的虫草,获得了零星的祝贺。“Only lucky people find yarsagumba in the morning,” one man said.“只有运气很好的人才能在早上寻找虫草,”一名男子说。


Mr. Rokaya, the shepherd, was cautious in his appraisal of the day’s pickings. Whatever the reason for the decline in yarsagumba, he said, it may be too late to salvage what has been lost.对于当天的采收,牧民罗卡亚的评价较为慎重。他说道不管是什么原因造成虫草产量上升,要挽救这里损失的东西有可能都早已太迟了。

“No jobs. No money. What to do?” he said, thrumming his fingers on a gnarled cane. “We eat the rice that even donkeys and horses don’t eat.”“没工作。没钱。能怎么办?”他一旁说道,一旁用手指倒数敲打一根倾斜的手杖。“我们不吃的是连驴和马都吃的大米。